Load packages library(tidyverse) library(conflicted) library(ggdag) library(broom) library(GGally) Motivation Assume there is some scientist with some theory. Her theory holds that X and Z are causes of Y. dag1 shows her DAG (ie., her theory depicted as a causal diagram). Our scientist is concerned with the causal effect of X on Y, where X is a treatment variable (exposure) and Y is the dependent variable under scrutiny (outcome). See …